Archive for the ‘AIDS’ category

The World Must Not Give Up!

December 4, 2007

By: Min Khin Kyaw 

(The author is 88 Generation leader, poet and artist)  

I have been inspired by the international pressure on the junta so far. More recently, both England and France and the US keeps reminding the dialogue must go ahead and for that the pressure on the junta is not waning. Unfortunately, the junta is still refusing to negotiate with the United Nations – let alone with democratic movement as more arrests have been there. And sending troops to KNU and tensions with others insurgent groups also indicates the resurfacing disagreement of the junta over the political developments – is another rejection of the totalitarian rule.

We have seen in Singapore that, how the junta has tried to treat – Mr. Gambari like other special UN envoys to Burma. Unlike previous envoys, he seems to possess a special quality but he still has to outwit the junta even though the international pressures are supporting his mission.   We certainly have to see the dialogue between Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and U Than Shwe. This is the tasks and main objective. However, he has no motive for dialogue and not even responding to let her see her team again. So it’s sure she will not be released – despite EU and ASEAN has asked in Singapore summit. It’s crystal clear that the junta will not give up its ground even an inch.    

Instead of worry, we only have one condition – to push ahead no matter what. I want to see people more united and trying to do just for that. As long as the general population of Burma can boycott the authorities in various ways or showing defiance, I hope the authorities themselves will become inspired and sometimes in the future they would side with the people. The monks must keep leading the way of defying.   

On the other hand, Mr. Gambari must not give up despite knowing how the scenario between him and the junta will develop. I think both NLD and the generals must give their roadmap plans to Mr. Gambari: what to discuss and how to discuss with a timeframe so he will be able to develop a workable structure; and also he can discuss the plan with the concern parties including ASEAN countries. Even if the junta wouldn’t give its plan to Mr. Gambari, as it’s about to push the seven step roadmap ahead as China seems to be happy with it, Mr. Gambari should get the plans of NLD and develop it into the framework for discussion.   It seems the neighbours of the junta are giving no real pressure, although they warmly welcomed Mr. Gambari. I think he has more works to do with them. If necessary, he should ask them to speak with the junta as far as the region concerns; if they don’t, then there is no real pressure – especially from China  

Apart from above, we need that the international community should ask junta to pardon all activists arrested recently.   

ASEAN with Burma Issue  

It is good that, ASEAN still thinks that there is a chance for good change. However, the idea of giving humanitarian aids to the junta, the Cambodian view as a member of ASEAN, is just another repetition. But the lesson of the past is forgotten, that, if a support is not for itself, the junta simply doesn’t accept?

I think, it appears as ASEAN is still hopeful that humanitarian effort of the good offices would be accepted. As ASEAN insists the junta needs support – then, ASEAN has to push the junta to accept such supports and if it ever happens, this effort of ASEAN will not be forgotten. It’s true the people of Burma need humanitarian aids: medical supply and education about various diseases, especially HIV; and the sooner this happens, the better. Therefore, both UN and ASEAN should insist the junta to do just for this.

However, the forced closure of a monastery that provided HIV patients is a contradiction to this idea unfortunately; and also the effort HIV doctor Ma Phyu Phyu Thin was disrupted and now she is detained despite the wishes of international community to keep restraints in further arrests. Yet, ASEAN can do the push and it will be a good task for ASEAN to seek this through firm realistic commitment. But what if the junta denies again? Before any attempt, ASEAN should have alternative ideas.  

If ASEAN is happy about this idea, it must develop the plan agreed by its members as soon as possible. It must include the consideration of refugees along the borders, Burmese workers in ASEAN countries and political developments with various insurgent groups who will have to give up fighting, when they get peace and security of their peoples.   

And ASEAN should consider how politics of all ethnic groups can be improved by humanitarian efforts; it’s true that the ethnics are desperate to get attention from regional countries. As soon as an agreement for peace between the junta and the ethnic groups, especially the Karens, as a fresh fighting between the two sides is looming, the dream of a democratic country of united ethnics of Burma will become closer to be true.   Politically, ASEAN has to be more careful than ever as the seven step roadmap effort of the junta is a serious issue. As the junta is denying to see and free political leaders to participate in the process of reconciliation and composing future constitution, there people cannot accept any development that made by the junta alone with its 54 misrepresentatives of the people. Hence, ASEAN must not show any gesture that can be interpreted as agreement or support to the foul effort of the junta.   Even though Democracy in Burma and peace in the region will certainly benefit every country that has relationship with Burma, as long as the ASEAN is more content with current situation than to be busy with an attempt for a better future, Burmese people will not have equal share of any good things in the region. 

Business with the Junta  

Once again, the debate of doing business with the ruling military junta has re-emerged that, it is ethical or not? And the case of TOTAL is always remain a good example! Recently the management of TOTAL has argued that, “We feel the country would have evolved much more if more responsible companies had remained… Development of human rights goes along with the development of the economy.”   Then how many people are currently employed by TOTAL and how much do they get paid has to be answered by TOTAL? It is also necessary to know that, how much junta receives every year from TOTAL and how much does the junta spends for the people from that income? In the areas where TOTAL operates, do all people get the similar benefits or how have they been affected because of TOTAL’s operations or are they affected to get worse? Now how can TOTAL calculate it gives better life for the people where it operates?  By the argument ‘Development of human rights goes along with the development of the economy’, TOTAL has to come up with a statement how it can improve the entire Burma with its operations with the junta that the junta will comply with the idea of development. And TOTAL has to provide evidences that the junta is doing just that.   And also, as TOTAL has argued for all business tied with the junta by its statement on economy provides human rights development, TOTAL has to prove that all other companies are doing the same to develop the local communities.

But how long will the people of Burma have to wait for the human right development made by this kind of business-bound efforts. Can TOTAL calculate year-by-year improvement that happened in past few years? How many years have passed and what have happened for the sake of the people and are they sufficient enough to be desirable?   And does TOTAL care about entire Burma or just a local where it operates? It’s clear that by its own words, TOTAL cares only about its operation but ignoring the entire Burma and the concern of wider community.  

We all know that many people were forced to move and lost their livelihoods as consequence of business projects. Now also, the dam projects in Burma will make everything bad luck to the local people. TOTAL cannot deny this. Even in China, dams are causing problems every year. There is no regulation in Burma that the project must conduct properly so it will be worse. As doing business in Burma, anything happening in Burma is directly related to TOTAL whilst the entire country is fighting against the junta which TOTAL is supporting. But not only TOTAL, all other businesses that link with the junta are a main concern of income for the junta. As TOTAL and all other companies in Burma cannot improve Burma in a few years, they must leave; the reason is once there is no income, the junta will fall in a year.   

If TOTAL (and any other companies) is really concerned about human rights, it must work with democratic side and oppose the junta. Unless TOTAL changes side, its argument is only a self-serving rhetoric. TOTAL, as a major gas company has to explain, why the junta imposed the price hikes on fossil fuels that caused the recent political movements?

(The End) 


Sino-Burmese Border: Drug and AIDS menace as a security threat in Southeast Asia

October 6, 2007

By: Paramita Das

Golden Crescent and Golden Triangle are the two regions where different types of drug and opium are produced on a large scale. Golden Crescent covers Afghanistan and Pakistan. Golden Triangle includes a part of Southern China, Central Burma and parts of Thailand. Burma is playing the central role in drug trafficking and opium cultivation and bearing the maximum disastrous effect along with its neighbouring countries. This paper likes to discuss illegal drug trade and cultivation of opium at ChinaBurma border and how these are threatening security of the region and Burma’s ruling military junta’s seriousness towards it.

Since 1950s opium and drugs were sources of fund for many insurgent groups in the region. With the defeat of Kuomintang forces by the Peoples’ Republic of China the Kuomintang forces migrated to Burma and established its bases there. The Kuomintang forces depended on opium and heroin production to carry on their war against the PRC. On the other side of the border China used to support and provided different aids to the Communist Party of Burma. But with the coming of Deng Xiaoping in 1978 the Chinese policy of assistance to the CPB was withdrawn. Since then the opium production or drug trafficking became the lifeline of the CPB. In 1989 unity of the CPB was broke down and it resulted into the rise of different ethnic groups. These groups made ceasefire agreement with the then secretary general Khin Nyunt. According to the agreement they were allowed opium cultivation in return of promise not to raise arms against the junta in future. [i]Among these insurgent groups most important is the United Wa State Army which are dubbed by the U.S. State Department as the “world’s largest drug trafficking militia”. [ii]

Sociologically, the people engaged in drug trade and poppy cultivation in Burma are ethnic Chinese from Burma, Thailand and Hongkong. The Chinese Muslims of Hui nationalities are also engaged in drug trade. In Burma most of the ethnic people farmers of the Wa and Shan state are engaged in poppy cultivation. Without poppy cultivation their life would become standstill as it has happened in Wa state after the ban imposed by United Wa State Army in Wa region of northern Shan state in June, 2005. Now they are questioning the ban in Wa region (only). [iii]

There are different routes by which different types of drug are distributing drugs to different parts of Burma and to other Asian countries specially China, India, and Thailand. The first route begins from the Kokang and Mong Ko areas which pass through Chinese border towns of Wanding, Ruili and via it reaches Kunming.[iv] The second route leads from Kengtung area near the border towns with Laos, via Jinghong in Xishuangbanna to Kunming.” [v] Much of the amphetamines produced in Burma are shipped through Mekong river to China[vi] There are other routes by which drugs are coming to India every year. Geographically the first receivers among Indian states are North-East Indian states. The drug lords of these states receive brown sugar and heroin from Sagaing area in north-west Burma to Tamu near Manipur.[vii] Moreh in Manipur is one of the international trading centres. Drugs are taken to Mizoram from there via Koley and Tiddim.[viii] Petty traders from Manipur in India come to Mandalay to buy high grade No.4 heroin.[ix] There are other routes also to export drugs to India from Burma.

Burma is situated at the centre of all these routes since this country is the hub of poppy cultivation. It is grown in Shan, Kachin and Kayah states bordering China, Laos and Thailand.[x] Burma is the main amphetamine producer in Southeast Asia and the second largest opium producer in the world.[xi] Ninety percent of Burma’s opium poppy production takes place in Shan state. From there it can be quickly exported to China.

In 2004 Burma produced approximately 700 million amphetamine tablets. [xii] Amphetamines produced in Burma are trafficked to the countries which are sharing border with Burma, India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Laos and China. Every year Thailand receives 900 million amphetamine pills from Burma through its northern border with Burma and Laos.[xiii] But Burma does not have factories which can produce chemicals essentially needed for production of different types of drugs. Here factories in India and China have filled up this gap. China is the biggest producer of numerous precursor chemicals used in the manufacture of amphetamines. [xiv] In India some companies based in Maharashtra are producer of precursor like ephedrine.[xv] Ephedrine first penetrated Burma from China in late 1996. More ephedrine imported from India in 1998 followed by caffeine and ATS production accessories from Thailand.[xvi]

In 2006 the Chinese Premier Wen Jiabo said “at present the Sino-Myanmar border area is being flooded with drugs, posing a huge danger to the society and people.” [xvii] The Sino-Burmese border is flooded with people infected with HIV and AIDS virus. Other outcome of drug trafficking are weaponization of society and rise in crime related activities. According to the statistics of China the number of known drug addicts was increased 35% from 2000 to 1.2 million by early 2005.[xviii] There is rapid spread of HIV epidemics resulting from unsafe injections is well documented in countries in and around the Golden Triangle such as in Burma, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and more recently in Indonesia [xix] In the early 1990s, the outbreak of HIV epidemic began among ethnic minority community in three mountain districts along the Sino-Burma border specially among the Kachin, and the Wa ethnic groups. In China the Ministry of Health reported that the first HIV/AIDS cases appeared in China in 1985, and that of as 1997, only Yunnan province has reported more than 1000 cases mostly among minorities. [xx] According to the Chinese Government’s statistics of 2001 there had been around 600,000 to 800,000 people living with HIV/AIDS.[xxi]

In 2003 it was estimated by the Chinese government that there were 61.1% people who were infected in HIV through drug use. [xxii] The highest rate of HIV infection is prevalent in Yunnan, bordering Burma. This region is the birth place of HIV epidemic in China. There virus had spread among the non IDU (injecting drug users) also.[xxiii] (Bulletins on Narcotics pg.03) IDU were the first group in which the epidemic spread of HIV was detected in China, Burma, Indonesia, and Malaysia.[xxiv] (IBID) In Burma, the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) and the Ministry of Health of Burma identified drug use rates among township adults of 2-25% in 1995.[xxv]

If we look at India we will find the same picture. A recent report published by UNDOC there is ‘generalized epidemic’ of HIV among the injecting drug users among the North-East Indian states. India’s northeast-Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Tripura are declared as one of the high risk zones in India with close to 100,000 people infected with HIV.[xxvi] The other neighbouring countries are also infected with this virus on a large scale.

Various measures are taken up to combat drug trafficking and AIDS menace in Sino-Burmese border by China, Burma, ASEAN and some NGOs also. In 1991 an agreement was signed between China and Burma. By this agreement China was putting pressure on Burma to curb drug trafficking in their border area. In 1993 Foreign Secretary of India Dixit had a meeting with the Burmese foreign ministry U Aye, where the need for cooperation in managing the common border between the two countries against drug trafficking, smuggling and insurgency was emphasized. [xxvii] In 1990 the Chinese authorities introduced stronger legislation and penalties including death sentences, beefed up narcotics police, collaborated with the (United States) Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the UN Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (ODCCP).[xxviii] The most important step was imposition of ban on opium cultivation in United Wa State Army territories. The rigorous punishment including death sentence was announced for violation of this order. [xxix]

In 2004 China signed an accord with Burma to combat drug trafficking.[xxx] In 2005 a painstaking drug bust operation was taken spanning 11 months. In the operation police forces of four countries Burma, China, Laos and Thailand coordinated each other. As a result 70 suspects including Han Yongwan were arrested and more than 726 kilograms of heroin were seized.[xxxi]

China and its neighbours Southeast Asia vowed to further strengthen their cooperative efforts in fighting illicit drugs especially the increasing menace of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) at the Second International Congress of the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China Co-operative Operations in Response to Dangerous Drugs (ACCORD) on October 20., 2005.[xxxii] A press conference called by the State Peace and Development Council on October 23, 2005 it was said that “Myanmar does not ignore nor undutiful to the drug eradication measures as blamed groundlessly by pessimistic foreign countries and anti-organizations.” [xxxiii] As far as the operation of 2005 was concerned the SPDC had shown cooperation and willingness of Burma to eradicate drug business in the region.

Nevertheless drug trafficking and drug related crime are spreading on a large scale in the region. It jeopardizes public health, public security, economy and threatens security of the entire region. In China of the entire registered drug addict population 80% of male users were involved in other illegal activities, while 80% females worked as prostitutes.[xxxiv] In some areas drug addicts are engaged in 60% to 80% robberies and thefts. [xxxv] The rise in prostitution or sex industry is common in the entire region. Weaponization of the region is another threatening outcome of the entire region. Drugs are exchanged with weapons not only along the Sino-Burmese border but along the Nagaland-Burmese border also. Though United Wa State Army territories were banned from poppy cultivation hundred of poppy farmers of the region reportedly moved to Mawfa area under Burma Army Command. [xxxvi] On the west of the Salween, farmers continued cultivation under strict supervision of pro junta military forces.[xxxvii] Apparently it seems that on one hand SPDC is combating the menace of drug trafficking in the region but the evidence shows rather the SPDC’s deep rooted involvement in the drug trade too. Through its numerous ceasefire agreements the SPDC has allowed ethnic armies such as the United Wa State Army (UWSA) and the United Democratic Alliance Army (UDAA) to carry on trade on narcotics.[xxxviii] Evidence exists that the UWSA is being used by the SPDC to carry war against diminishing Shan State Army[xxxix] On the other hand we find the since 1999 SPDC initiated its15 year Narcotics Eradication programme to meet the dead line of ASEAN drug free zone by 2015.[xl] But this drug eradication programme does not include eradication of amphetamine production. (xIi) This is one of the drawbacks of the programme. NGOs like Population Services International have come forward to spread condom education programme to protect themselves from the AIDS menace.[xlii]It is extremely difficult to work with such programme in a military state like Burma where ruling State Peace and Development Council does not provide encouragement towards sex education. For example, one of the Burmese actress Shwe Zen Twaik faced obstacles in her effort to combat AIDS and HIV in the country since her campaign did not get the entry in the state owned television. As a result she had to abandon the concerned programme.[xliii]

This is the horrible picture of Burma which is threatening security of the entire region. The Burmese people should be given proper education to make them aware of the worst outcome of the poppy cultivation, amphetamine production, and sex industry. The restoration of democracy in Burma is the urgent necessity and should be the first step to enlighten the people of Burma. But as long as the SPDC is in power to such enlightenment is not possible in Burma since the SPDC is one of the motivating sources for poppy cultivation, drug business behind the curtain of state owned drug eradication progamme. As long as the ruling junta would be in power the ASEAN dream of creation of a drug free zone would remain a distant dream.

(Ms. Paramita Das is presently affiliated as a Senior Research Scholar at the Southeast Asian & South-West Pacific Studies Division, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and working as a Lecturer in the Department of History, TDB College, Raniganj, University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India)



[i] Arnott, David : China-Burma Relations, Challenges to Democratization in Burma, edited by Aung Zaw, IDEA, 2000

[ii] Black, Michael,: On Myanmar-China Border, Tensions Escalate Between SPDC, Narco-Militias, World Politics Watch, December 13,2006

[iii] Shan Drug Watch, June 2007, Issue I, pg.03

[iv] Stobdan, P., China’s Forays into Burma: Implications for India, Strategic Analysis, Vol 16, No.01, April 1993, p.25

[v] Ibid

[vi] Burma Issues and Concerns: The Security Dimensions,Vol. 4, April 2007, Burma, p.08

[vii] Nishit, Border Affairs,Vol.07, No.01, October-December

[viii] Ibid

[ix] Beyrer,C.,Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), infection rate and heroine trafficking fearful symmetries, Offprint fromBulletin on Narcotics No. LIV, Nos. 1 and 2, 2002, p. 107

[x] Singh, Swaran,: The Sinicization of Myanmar and its Implications for India, Issues and Studies:33, No.1,January 1997, p.122

[xi] Burma Issues and Concerns: The Security Dimensions, Vol. 4, April 2007, p.06

[xii] Ibid, p.07

[xiii] Ibid, p.08

[xiv] Ibid, p.08

[xv] Nishit, : How Drugs are brought and sold in India, Border Affairs, October-December 2005, Vol.07, No.01, pg. 28

[xvi] Third Session of the 24th Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies of Asia and Pacific Region, November 16, 2000

[xvii] Burma Issues and Concerns: The Security Dimensions,Vol. 4, April 2007,pg.11

[xviii] Burma Issues and Concerns: The Security Dimensions,Vol. 4, April 2007,pg.11

[xix] Beyrer,C.,Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), infection rate and heroine trafficking fearful symmetries, Offprint fromBulletin on Narcotics No. LIV, Nos. 1 and 2, 2002, p. 104

[xx] Feingold, David A., Sex, Drugs and the IMF: Some Implications of ‘Structural Readjustment’ for the Trade in Heroin, Girls and Women in the Upper Mekong Region, New Cargo: The Global Business of Trafficking in Women”, a special issue of Refuge, Vol. 17, No.05, 1998, November, p.03

[xxi] Burma Issues and Concerns: The Security Dimensions,Vol 4, April,2007,p.12

[xxii] Ibid

[xxiii] Breyer ,C.,Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), infection rate and heroine trafficking fearful

symmetries, Offprint fromBulletin on Narcotics No. LIV, Nos. 1 and 2, 2002, p.105

[xxiv] Ibid

[xxv] Ibid

[xxvi] Burma Issues and Concerns: The Security Dimensions,Vol 4, April,2007, p.14

[xxvii] Ghoshal, Baladas, Trends in China-Burma Relations, China Report 30:2, 1994, Sage Publications, new Delhi, p.200-201

[xxviii] Arnott, David, China-Burma Relations, Challenges to Democratization in Burma edited by Aung Zaw, IDEA, 2000, ://

[xxix] Shan Drug Watch, June 2007, issue 01, p.03

[xxx] China, Myanmar sign border security accord, Agence Frnace-Presse-December 05, 2004

[xxxi] Zhuqing, Jiang, Joint Action Helps Bust Cross Border Drug Ring, China Daily, October 19, 2005, Hong Kong

[xxxii] Zhuqing, Jiang, China, ASEAN step up war against drugs,China Daily, October 21, 2005


[xxxiv] Burma Issues and Concerns: The Security Dimensions, Vol. 04, April 2007, p.11

[xxxv] Ibid

[xxxvi] Shan Drug Watch, June 2007, Issue I,p.15

[xxxvii] Ibid

[xxxviii] Burma Issues and Concerns: The Security Dimensions, Vol. 04, April 2007, p.16

[xxxix] Ibid

[xl] Ibid

[xli] Ibid

[xlii] Selling Safer Sex in Conservative Burma, Aung Htet, September 1, 2007