Re-visiting Yoichi Yamaguchi’s allegations against Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and Democratic movement in Burma

(The article was scheduled for publication on 28th of October 2007 but due to the failure of internet support facilities, it is appearing today – Rajshekhar, Editor, Burma Review, India    


On 11th of October 2007, Mr. Yoichi Yamaguchi, a former Japanese ambassador to Burma and high profile diplomat of Japanese foreign policy establishment came out with a thesis entitled, “Foreign Countries’ one sided erroneous views on Myanmar Affairs” against Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and ongoing democratic movement in Burma in a reputed Japanese media – “Shukan Shincho Weekly Journal”. The article written by Mr. Yamaguchi suited the purpose of Burma’s ruling military junta – State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), which had been desperately seeking international support to restore their lost legitimacy of rule through guns in Burma and was finely reproduced in Burma’s official state controlled media – “The New Light of Myanmar” on 23rd of October 2007. The article unfortunately tried to prove that, Asia’s symbol of democracy and Burma’s much loved people’s icon– Daw Aung San Suu Kyi had been working on the strategic designs of the United Sates of America like SPDC’s regular false accusations. It also attempted to prove that, over the years; she has lost the popular support among Burmese people and the August-September 2007 monks and people’s protests figures had been much hiked by foreign media.

Moreover, shockingly it also started with an attempt to prove that his fellow countrymen and versatile Japanese journalist – Mr. Nagai Kenji’s brutal death by riot police of SPDC on 27th September 2007 was mere accident. So now it becomes important to analyze, that, why Mr. Yamaguchi came with mud-slinging against Daw Suu Kyi and its reality, even denying the facts of the involvement and shocking death of his fellow Japanese journalist by Burmese riot police?     

Timing of Yoichi’s Article:  

If we re-visit the timing of the article by Mr. Yamaguchi appearing on 11th October in Japanese media, we can easily find that, the article was well timed to generate support for Burma’s infamous ruling military junta – SPDC in Japanese Foreign policy establishment and international institutions, which had been shocked by the brutal suppression of August-September 2007 monks protests, the death of maverick Japanese AFP photographer and grappling with the national demand to cut-off their business and aid support policy with Burma’s military junta together with international demand for the freedom of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and restoration of democracy in Burma.

It is also important to see that, after the betrayal of Russia and China on vetoing Burma’s question of democracy on 12th January 2007 in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), it was once again on 11th October, that, the issue of freedom of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other political prisoners resurfaced in UNSC presidential texts. In its 5757th afternoon meeting on 11th of October 2007, the UN Security Council strongly deplored the use of violence against peaceful demonstrations in Myanmar and welcomed Human Rights Council resolution S-5/1 of 2 October 2007, which aimed to create the necessary conditions for a genuine dialogue with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and all concerned parties and ethnic groups, in order to achieve an inclusive national reconciliation with the direct support of the United Nations.[i]    

Moreover, it was on 11th October that, UN Department of Public Information came out with the news that, UN Secretary General – Mr. Ban Ki-moon has decided to dispatch his special envoy on Burma – Mr. Ibrahim Gambari back to the region over the weekend for consultations with regional partners starting with Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, China and Japan as well as lastly to Rangoon.[ii] Earlier, Human Rights Council had already taken tough stand against military junta on 2nd of October 2007, which had been also celebrated as UN International Day of Non-violence and openly UN Secretary General accepted in his speech referring to the recent wave of peaceful protests witnessed in Burma that, “we have witnessed lethal force being used against unarmed and non-violent marchers who exemplified the very spirit of the Mahatma’s teachings.”[iii] Even on 5th of October 2007, the UN Secretary General – Ban Ki-moon, in his address to the UN Security Council boldly stated that, “I am deeply concerned about the recent events in Myanmar and the reports of continued human rights violations.  I must reiterate that the use of force against peaceful demonstrators is abhorrent and unacceptable… Now more than ever before, the Government of Myanmar should take bold actions towards democratization and respect for human rights.  The national reconciliation process must be accelerated and be made as broad-based, inclusive and transparent as possible.”[iv]     

Now, for Mr. Yamaguchi, who had served Japan’s diplomatic position in various capacities at national and international institutions could easily guess the unfolding direction of world opinion towards freedom in Burma and he timely thought it better to defend cornered military regime, like his earlier ones, first at national Japanese media then making it known to the world. However, whether he was aware of the 11th of October forthcoming UNSC Presidential texts condemning military junta and Ban Ki-moon’s decision to dispatch Mr. Ibrahim Gambari to the region or not to write his thesis; can’t be assessed with surety? But one should be aware with the recent news of Democratic Voice of Burma that one high official of UN is helping and leaking reports to military junta has already appeared in media. And if it is true then Mr. Yamaguchi must have been aware of the forthcoming unfolding event of 11th of October 2007 of UNSC and Secretary General’s decision on Burma to dispatch Mr. Gambari to write his article to defame Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and restoration of democratic movement in Burma    

Moreover, on 12th of October 2007, press briefings, the Japanese government welcomed the UNSC decision of 11th of October[v] and Mr. Yamaguchi would have been aware well before of new developing Japanese foreign policy position being a senior Japanese diplomat, which was slowly moving towards the policy of cutting of aid to Burma’s military regime, which ultimately happened and known to the world on 16th of October, when Japan, Burma’s largest aid donor cancelled a grant worth $ 4.7 million US dollars to the military regime.[vi]

It is important to note that two months before on 31st of July 2007, the Government of Japan had decided to provide up to 552 million yen worth of assistance to the education project in Rangoon and which aimed to teach Japanese language, Japanese economy and business studies in one of the universities in Yangon.[vii]   

After the death of Japanese journalist – Mr. Kenji Nagai on 27th September during monk’s mass protests, Japanese foreign policy establishment had been working hard till 2nd of October to get the body of the deceased journalist amidst questions from the media on imposing sanctions on Burma. When Japanese Deputy Press Secretary of ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tomohiko Taniguchi was asked by media on 2nd of October 2007, that, “Has the Japanese Government been contemplating some kind of sanction against Myanmar because of this latest incident”, Taniguchi replied that, “That is one of the issues we have to discuss with Mr. Yabunaka (Mr. Mitoji Yabunaka, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan) upon his arrival at the Ministry.” Moreover, the body of the deceased journalist – Mr. Kenji Nagai remained in Burma for six days after brutal killing trapped in official procedure of red-tapism of military junta despite constant demand of Japan for the early release of the coffin. And after much Japanese diplomatic endeavour, the deceased body was permitted and scheduled to arrive in Japan on 3rd of October 2007.[viii] The Japanese Ministry of Foreign affairs accepted officially on 12th October 2007, after the legal autopsy of Mr. Kanji Nagai in Japan that, “Mr. Nagai died of blood loss due to hepatic injury caused by a perforating bullet wound.”[ix]       

It is important to note that, after the gruesome killing of the Japanese journalist – Mr. Kenji Nagai, the visiting Japanese Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs – Mr. Mitoji Yabunaka met with senior officials of the SPDC at Naypyidaw, which included – Mr. U Maung Myint, Deputy Foreign Minister; Colonel Aye Ko, Deputy Chief, Office of Chief of the Military Security Affairs (OCMSA), Ministry of Defense; and Brigadier-General Kyaw Hsan, Minister for Information on 1st of October 2007. During his trip, Mr. Mitoji Yabunaka also tried to meet with incarcerated democracy leader – Daw Aung San Suu Kyi but he was not permitted to do so. Mr. Yabunaka even unsuccessfully tried to meet with then visiting UN special envoy to Burma – Mr. Ibrahim Gambari but due to his tight schedule he couldn’t meet him.[x]     

Other Purpose of the Yoichi’s article:   

Apart from the timely appearance of the Yamaguchi’s article to defend infamous military regime of Burma, the other purpose of former ambassador of Japan was to maintain developing cozy economic relationship of Japan with military General’s, which suddenly become topsy-turvy after the brutal death of Mr. Kenji Nagai by SPDC’s riot police. The diplomatic relation between Japan and Burma was established in 1954 during democratic era of U Nu. From the year 1988 to 2003, Japan’s direct investment in Burma constituted around $212.57 million US dollars. In the year 2004 alone, Burma’s trade with Japan constituted exports of marine products (esp. prawn), sesame, pulse, and timber etc. of 19.4 billion yen and imports of transportation and construction machinery worth 11.3 billion yen.[xi]

And according to the press briefings of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs of 2nd October 2007, in the fiscal years of 2005 and 2006, the Government of Japan gave Burma, the grant assistance of US $14.6 million and US $11.5 million, respectively and in the fiscal year of 2004, the amount was around US $26.8 million.[xii]      

Moreover, the man who initiated the pace of rising economic and aid partnership between Japan and Burma’s infamous military junta since 1995 was none other then – Mr. Yoichi Yamaguchi. During his ambassadorial tenure in Rangoon (1995-97), who also happens presently to be the patron of Japan-Myanmar Friendship Association, in one of the symposium held jointly by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific and the Japanese Foreign Ministry in the year 1996 at Rangoon, Mr. Yamaguchi lamented that, participating 93 Japanese Corporations are called “NATO” in Burma, which stands for “No Action, Talking Only”, and said that, “there have been a lot of business talks that fell short of turning into contracts.”[xiii]  

Earlier, in the same year in June 1996, due to the active support of Mr. Yamaguchi, the Myanmar Securities Exchange Company Ltd. was inaugurated at the Sule Pagoda Road, Rangoon with the Japanese collaboration of Daiwa Securities Co. Ltd. and Myanmar Economic Bank. It is important to note that, the inauguration of the Myanmar Securities Exchange Centre Co. Ltd. was the first organization in Burma to launch a securities exchange business to provide brokerage services as well as advisory services for investment and to realize future Stock Exchange in Burma under military regime.[xiv]    

Even the web site of Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs in its list of VIP visits depicts high profile visits of Burmese leaders since 1995, the year when Yamaguchi was appointed ambassador of Japan to Burma, which starts from Vice-Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council now SPDC, General Maung Aye’s visit to Japan in October 1995 to the visit of – Mr. U Nyan Win, Foreign Minister of Burma’s visit to Japan in May 2005.[xv]   

In December 2000, Mr. Yamaguchi led a goodwill delegation of Japan-Myanmar Friendship Association (JMFA) to Rangoon as an advisor to the JMFA and met with senior officials of SPDC.[xvi] Even in the December 2003, Mr. Yamaguchi visited Rangoon with Japan-Myanmar Economic Cooperation President – Mr. Chigemoto Okuda and discussed promotion of air transport between the two countries and development of Burma’s tourism industry with then Prime Minister – General Khin Nyunt, and also present at that time were Burmese Foreign Minister – U Win Aung, Deputy Ministers – U Khin Maung Win and U Kyaw Thu, then Burmese ambassador to Japan – U Saw Hla Min, Director General – U Soe Tint of Government office and Director General – U Aung Bwa etc. of ASEAN affairs department.[xvii]    

Nothing New in Allegation against Daw Aung San Suu Kyi:    

Even on earlier occasions, Mr. Yoichi Yamaguchi has been involved in writing against Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and restoration of democracy movement as he wrote on 11th of October and reproduced by SPDC on 23rd of October in the official New Light of Myanmar to defame her. He wrote a book entitled, “Real State of Myanmar” in 1999 defending military junta to protect business interests of some Japanese corporate sectors doing business in Burma and accused western countries of double standards and said that, “Mrs. Suu Kyi is losing support from the people,” and advocating, “Japan should resume aid positively.”[xviii]   

Most surprisingly, he even went to the extent of refusing military regime as a dictatorial power and any corruption in the SPDC rule. When Mr. Kazuya Sato, the reporter of The Sekai Nippo, asked him in November, 1999, that, “Is there any differences between the present military government and Pak government of Korea or Suharto government of Indonesia,” he replied that, “The biggest difference is the Myanmar military government is not dictatorial system by a man of absolute power, it is taking a group leading system. Its supreme organization – State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) is organized by 19 members practically; Chairman Than Shwe, Vice Chairman Maung Aye, Secretary One – Khin Nyunt and Secretary Two – Tin Oo, who decide the will with consensus of these 4 members. They did not take the power by their desires, but have strong will of mission, and working on construction of the country without any self-interest or personal gain. There are almost no corruptions.”[xix]    

On 4th of January 2000, Mr. Yoichi Yamaguchi, wrote article entitled, “Most Mass Media Ignores Yangon Reality,” in the reputed Japanese media, “The Japan Times”, which was then reproduced in the Burma’s military government official media. In which, he writes that, “A wide gap exists, however between the political realities in Myanmar and the news usually reported by most of the mass media in Western countries and Japan. News about Myanmar is quite often based on a fixed pattern: The military junta (the bad guys) versus Aung San Suu Kyi’s NLD (The good guys). Suu Kyi has become a global heroine of democracy, with the image of a modern Joan of Arc, whereas the military clique is always described as oppressing democracy movements, disrespecting human rights and clinging to power in order to maintain their rules…In reality, members of the military junta are far from clinging to power for selfish motives.”[xx]  

However, Mr. Yamaguchi forgets one important fact while writing in the year 2007, 11th of October that, his constant support and hope that military regime would be not interested in clinging to power has not realized even after his writings appeared seven-eight years ago in “The Japan Times” and “The Sekai Nippo”.     

Role of Japan-Myanmar Friendship Association in negating genuine democratic forces in Burma    

Moreover, Mr. Yamaguchi who is closely associated with Japan-Myanmar Friendship Association (JMFA) and visited Rangoon as an advisor of the JMFA in December 2000 played important role in enhancing business interests of certain corporate houses of Japan and weakening democracy movement lad by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. As acknowledged by the noted Burmese affairs scholar and anthropologist Mr. Gustaaf Houtman that, “within Japan, the Japan-Myanmar Friendship Association has furthermore played a role in supporting the Myanmar Embassy in converting key political opponents back towards the regime in Japan. For example, in the regime’s Information Sheets the story is told of the political conversion of U Win Naing. He arrived in Japan under the sponsorship of a member of the Friendship Association in 1980, but took part in anti-regime demonstrations in 1988, becoming chairman of the Burmese Association in Japan (BAIJ) and a member of the Burma Democratic Council (Chicago). He describes his formal abandonment of his ‘confrontational political activities’ from 11 November 1996, because now the Burmese regime emphasizes development through foreign investment. He is now organizing ‘Myanmar and Japanese friends in Japan to promote such investments in Myanmar’. His conversion was facilitated by Mr Kuwabara, an executive of the Japan-Myanmar Friendship Association, who featured Win Naing’s original renunciation prominently in the association’s publication, a document later published verbatim on the regime’s own Internet site.  In the regime’s replication of this article it added the following after the title, ‘The warm rays of sun light are more suitable than the chill wind from the north for the better future of Myanmar, the motherland’, bearing out the regime’s happy acceptance of what Seekins characterized as Japan’s views on development.”[xxi]      

Alleged Connection of Daw Suu Kyi, Democracy with Foreign, USA and Western Powers:   

Now the next question emerges from Mr. Yamaguchi’s article to analyze the alleged connection of NLD and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi with foreign, USA and Western Powers and the reality behind it? It is also important to explore, because, it has been played on and off in junta’s official mouthpiece – the New Light of Myanmar etc. like Mr. Yamaguchi’s thesis since so many past years.      

Mr. Yamaguchi following his earlier writings of 1999 and 2000, wrote again on 11th of October 2007, that, “The European and Japanese media are still regarding Daw Aung San Suu Kyi as the hopeful star. However, the attitude of Myanmar people toward Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has changed a lot. The reason is that the majority of Myanmar people have come to know that Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has received cash and kind as well as the instructions from the US… When I was the Japanese ambassador to Myanmar in Myanmar Daw Aung San Suu Kyi frequently contacted Albright of the US Administration and received anti-government instructions as well as cash and kind.”[xxii] However, like a true Gandhian and former research student of Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, Shimla (India), and worked on the topic of comparative study of nationalist movement of India and Burma, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi had been well aware of the forthcoming allegations against her of western sponsorship, which many Indian nationalist leaders like – Gandhi, Subhas Chandra Bose etc. faced in their struggle for freedom. Perceiving the allegation like Yamaguchi’s and military dictatorship, she wrote in her book – “Freedom From Fear”, that, “It was predictable that as soon as the issue of human rights became an integral part of the movement for democracy the official media should start ridiculing and condemning the whole concept of human rights, dubbing it a western artifact alien to traditional values,”[xxiii] and Yamaguchi’s is not outside the ambit of official media perception of military junta mentioned by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi in her writings.   

And even for a moment, if we accept that USA, Britain, EU, Nordic nations together with many countries of Asia are supporting and in the forefront of helping democratic movement in Burma led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi then what is wrong in it? The official newspaper of military junta proves that SPDC leadership has not missed even a single opportunity in sending greetings to western European nations in their national day as well as by visiting and maintaining diplomatic relations with the western powers. It is another matter that, western nations have been not fooled by their tactics to bury democracy. Why SPDC become member of ASEAN in July 1997, the regional group which is closely linked with western economies? Moreover, why SPDC is keen to participate in Asia-Europe meetings, if they feel western nations are with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi?     

It is a general nature of any people’s movement that if it is suppressed with the bayonet’s of gun, it tries to find a friend which comes first to render the help. In Burma’s situation, where the national leadership like – Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has been forced to remain in house arrest since last twelve years and many political prisoners languishing in jail without recognition as a political prisoner and rest of the leadership had been forced to flee from the country, then it is quite natural that, the remaining democratic forces look for those who comes first with the genuine concern for help. When nations like – India took the lead in 1988 under the Rajiv Gandhi’s leadership, the whole Burmese democratic forces looked for India’s help and aligned themselves with India? When India started keeping silence since 1992 look east policy in the name of pursuing pragmatic foreign policy and western nations came forward to help them, they shifted their hope more towards western nations, however on every occasion, they relied on their own strength; which was once again proved in August-September 2007 mass protests by monks and refusal by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi to follow the dictates of military junta to surrender.      

Moreover, Mr. Yamaguchi being a diplomat intentionally fails to understand that if the character of leadership is national in any socio-political movement then concerned movement remains confined to the national boundaries and if the quality of leadership has international outlook then no forces can suppress it to cross the national boundaries. Here the leadership of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi like Gandhi had been shaped through higher education attended at reputed institutions of Asia and Europe for international outlook. So, it is quite natural that their struggle finds its echo crossing national boundaries in western capitals together with many Asian-African, Latin-American cities. This is the reason which differentiates the Burmese movement for democracy gaining wide international support compared with many unknown socio-political upheavals in other countries of the Globe?

In addition, it is not new even in many modern Asian political movements including Burma to seek foreign support. Even Bogyoke Aung San for a moment sought support from Japan to establish freedom of thought and rights in Burma while organizing group of “thirty comrades” and later realizing his tactical mistakes aligned with British Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces Louis Mountbatten.     

During Indian independence movement, even Gandhi enjoyed close friendship and connections with many Europeans, which included – C.F. Andrews (British missionary popularly known as Deenbandhu or friend of the poor), Miss Madeleine Slade or Mira Behn, noted author and philosopher Romain Rolland, Swiss couple – Mr. and Mrs. Edmond Privat, French author – M. Richard Paul, Rev. Joseph J. Doke (worked with Gandhi in South Africa), Mr. Pollack and many more Europeans who stood with Gandhi in his struggle for freedom. So, even if it is true that Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has contacted Miss Albright of US administration then what is wrong in it? She has not contacted Miss Albright to build a house at USA and migrate there but to establish home, freedom of speech, job and food for every Burmese in her struggle for freedom in Burma like Gandhi made connections with many Europeans or Europeans contacted Gandhi in his struggle for freedom.

Apart from Gandhi, there is a long list of Indians from Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Dadabhai Naroji, popularly known as grand old man of India, Vivekananda, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore, Jawaharlal Nehru, Shyamji Krishna Varma (who started “Indian Sociologist” from London), Madam Cama (who started “Bande Mataram” from Paris), Virendranath Chattopadhyay (who started “Talvar” from Berlin) etc. had rich contacts with Europeans and Americans in their journey to establish freedom and equal rights including right to protests against unjust policies.       


Regarding Mr. Yamaguchi’s allegation of hiked figure of mass demonstration by western media of August-September 2007 monks protests. The Japanese diplomat intentionally fails to mention spontaneous protests, which took place in the many cities of Burma like – Chauk, Shwebo, Mongwa, Taung Dwin Gyi, Ye Nan Chaung, Pakokku, Mandalay etc. and confines his arguments to Rangoon, which had  been seen burning red with orange robes world over on television screen against military junta.    

Lastly, the suspension of $ 4.7 million US dollars aid to military junta by Japan on the issue of Burmese democratic questions has once again proved that, the ‘land of rising sun’ can’t become refuse of any diplomatic tactics, even if it comes from the fellow countrymen and senior diplomats like – Mr. Yamaguchi. The welcome step of Japan of suspending aid to Burma, once again redeemed her earlier pledge expressed in March 1997 that, “Government of Japan believes that SLORC should seek for ways and means to initiate dialogue with Suu Kyi’s NLD and should incorporate the NLD in the process of drafting a new state constitution,”[xxiv] and again reiterated on 29th of November 2005, that, “Japan strongly hopes that the Government of Myanmar should expedite the democratization process, including the early release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi.”[xxv]

It is also in tune with her foreign policy stand taken last year on 29th of May 2006, which advocated that, “Japan deems it regrettable that the Government of Myanmar has not yet lifted the detention under house arrest of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, although the Government of Myanmar accepted the visit of Dr. Ibrahim Gambari, United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs and permitted a meeting with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Japan strongly hopes that the Government of Myanmar will activate talks with the international community including those restarted with the United Nations, and that it will expedite the democratization process, including the early release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other political prisoners, and resume dialogue with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi.”[xxvi]   




[i] SECURITY COUNCIL DEPLORES VIOLENCE USED AGAINST MYANMAR DEMONSTRATORS, STRESSES IMPORTANCE OF EARLY RELEASE FOR ALL POLITICAL PRISONERS, Presidential Statement Reaffirms Strong Support For Recent Good Offices Mission, Early Return to Facilitate Tangible Results, Security Council, Press Release No. SC/9139, Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, United Nations, New York, Also UNSC Presidential Text No. S/PRST/2007/37, 11th of October 2007.

[ii] Secretary-General sends special advisor back to Asia for consultation on Myanmar, Secretary-General Press Release No. SG/SM/11214, Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, United Nations, New York, 11th of October 2007.

[iii] Ban Ki-moon, Gandhi’s message of non-violence needed now more than ever – Ban Ki-moon, UN News Service Press Release, United Nations, UN News Centre, New York, 3rd of October 2007.

[iv] Speed up Myanmar Reconciliation Process Urges Secretary General as his special advisor briefs Security Council on recent visit, Security Council 5753rd Meetings, Security Council Press Release No. SC/9136, United Nations, UN News Centre, New York, 5th of October 2007.

  [v] Media FAQ, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan Press briefings on 12th October 2007, International Press Division, Kasumigaseki 2-2-1, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan.

[vi] AP News, Japan Cancels Burma Aid in Protest, Time Magazine in partnership with CNN, 16th of October 2007, from the web site:,8816,1671969,00.html > Accessed on 16th of October 2007. 

[vii] Media FAQ, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan Press briefings on 19th October 2007, International Press Division, Kasumigaseki 2-2-1, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan.

[viii] Tomohiko Taniguchi, Deputy Press Secretary, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, The Situation in the Union of Myanmar, Press Conference 2nd of October 2007, International Press Division, Kasumigaseki 2-2-1, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan.

[ix] Note No. 5.

[x] Ibid.

[xi] Japan-Myanmar Relations, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan Information Sheet, October 2007, International Press Division, Kasumigaseki 2-2-1, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan. 

[xii] Note No. 7.

[xiii] Takashi Sakamoto, Japan Still Cautious Over Investing in Myanmar, Daily Yomiuri, Japan, 1st of March 1996, Also available on Burmanet News, 7th of March 1996, No. 356, From the web site: 

< > accessed on 27th of October 2007.

[xiv] Daw Ryi Ryi Hla, The Inauguration of the Myanmar Securities Exchange Centre Co. Ltd., from the official website of the government of Myanmar: > accessed on 25th  of October 2007.

[xv] Note No. 10.

[xvi] The New Light of Myanmar, 19th of December 2000, Rangoon, Burma.

[xvii] Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt receives members of House of Representatives and Councillors, Japanese Friends, The New Light of Myanmar, 15th of December 2003, Rangoon, Burma.

[xviii] Kazuya Sato, Real State of Myanmar, The Sekai Nippo, 27 November 1999, from the web site:      <> accessed on 26th of October 2007.

[xix] Ibid.

[xx] Yoichi Yamaguchi, Most Mass Media ignores Yangon reality, The Japan Times, Tokyo, 4th of January 2000.

[xxi] Gustaaf Houtman. Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics. ILCAA Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia & Africa, Monograph Series 33, Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 1999, ISBN 4-87297-748-3, p152/392.

[xxii] Yoichi Yamaguchi, Foreign Countries’ one sided erroneous views on Myanmar Affairs, The New Light of Myanmar, 23rd of October 2007, Rangoon, Burma.

[xxiii] Aung San Suu Kyi, Freedom From Fear and other writings, Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, Year 1995 (First Published in 1991), p.174.

[xxiv] Japan’s position regarding the situation in Myanmar, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan Information sheet, March 1997, Kasumigaseki 2-2-1, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan.

[xxv] Statement by the Press Secretary/Director-General for Press and Public Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan Press briefings, on the continuation of the detention under House Arrest of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi in Myanmar, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, November 29, 2005, Kasumigaseki 2-2-1, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan.

[xxvi] Statement by the Press Secretary/Director-General for Press and Public Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan Press briefings, on the continuation of the detention under House Arrest of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi in Myanmar, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, 29th of May 2006, Kasumigaseki 2-2-1, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan.      





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